Opalko O.A., Opalko A.I. Peculiarities of the Woody Plants Re-Bloom

 
Opalko Olga Anatolievna
Ph.D. in Agriculture, Associate Professor, Senior Researcher,
Department of Physiology, Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology,
Sofiyivka National Dendrological Park of NAS of Ukraine
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Opalko Anatoly Ivanovich
Ph.D. in Agriculture, Professor, Head of Department of Physiology,
Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology,
Sofiyivka National Dendrological Park of NAS of Ukraine
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Abstract. The data of literary sources concerning the bloom of angiosperm plants and deviation in the development of a flower and inflorescence, in particular untimely flowering, was generalized; our observation results of some peculiarities of re-bloom of woody plants in the National Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka” of NAS of Ukraine (NDP “Sofiyivka”) were discussed. The flowering process was formed during a long-term evolution of a propagation system of angiosperm plants as a basis of fertilization and further fruit and seed development. As a result of vernalization and photoperiodism reactions, flowering (under regular conditions) occurs in the most favorable period for pollination and fertilization of every plant. However, various deviations, in particular, the untimely (most frequently double, sometimes three- and four-fold) flowering occurs in this perfect process of generative organ formation of angiosperm plants. An increased number of reports about re-bloom (at the end of summer – at the beginning of fall) of the representatives of various woody plant species whose flowers usually blossom in May-June prompts the analysis of the available information concerning the mechanisms of flowering and the causes which lead to deviation of flowering processes. Flowering of the woody plant representatives of the collection fund of the NDP “Sofiyivka” was studied; statistics about re-bloom in different cities of Ukraine were monitored. The classification of re-bloom facts was carried out according to V.L. Vitkovskiy (1984). Although this classification has mostly a stated nature, it was good enough when being formulated and, with certain conditions, it can be applied nowadays. Accordingly, using this classification, abnormal cases can include facts of early summer-fall flowering and early winter flowering. A late spring flowering can be adaptive response of damaged plants to exogenous stresses, due to which the probability of sexual propagation remains. Early spring-early summer flowering is a dual-natured category which, under certain conditions, may have adaptive meaning and facilitate seminal propagation. Most cases of untimely flowering registered in NDP “Sofiyivka” represent a group of early summer-fall flowering, in some cases late spring flowering occurred though. Secondary flowering is usually connected with meteorological peculiarities of the year. Most frequently it is seen in very dry years, first of all, after hot and dry spring. The rebloom can have an adaptive nature in case of development seeds with full germination, moreover the immature germs of underdeveloped seeds formed from the flowers of early summer-fall flowering can be used in breeding programs.
 
Key words: dichogamy, fasciation, florigen, heterostyly, hermaphrodite plants, intercalary meristems, protandry, protogyny, sexual polymorphism.
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